"Characteristics that determine the potential of an innovation to go to scale'
"Valued outcomes: The ability of the innovation to generate income and enhance well-being at community level or to achieve policy objectives at the institutional level. An example of the former is a high-value cash crop with a ready market in urban centres. An example of the latter is a methodological innovation within a research or development organisation that promotes institutional objectives (e.g., farm-level value capture, market-oriented research), or demand-driven service provision.'
"Effectiveness: The ability of the innovation to meet the goals and aspirations of beneficiaries. For example, an approach or process that emphasises equitable technology distribution or sharing among individuals and among villages will appeal to the majority of farmers, especially those with meagre resources and formerly excluded by research and development programmes.'
"Efficiency: What is being piloted is cost-effective, thus enhancing its potential for scaling up and out. Production of a unit of good or service is termed economically efficient when that unit of good or service is produced at the lowest possible cost, relative to the value it generates. With limited financial resources, this consideration is particularly important in an organisation's decisions to invest in particular research or development activities.'
"Sustainability: The potential for the benefits from the innovation process to be enjoyed over prolonged periods by the recipients, even after those supporting its dissemination are no longer involved. This is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. Although the term is used more in environmental circles, it is relevant to social processes (e.g., participation, collective decision-making, institutional collaboration) that work in tandem with technologies."
(IDRC-CRDI – Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: From concept to practice – Edited by Laura German, Jeremias Mowo, Tilahun Amede, and Kenneth Masuki, p. 244)