"In countries with fragile institutions, the mining sector is recognised by many to have produced more misery than wealth for local populations. It has been shown in this regard that countries rich in natural resources may be characterised by worse economic performances than less endowed countries. No consensus has yet emerged to explain such an apparent paradox (Collier and Hoeffler, 2005; Ross, 1999) and this manner of approaching such issues is itself the subject of debate. However, twelve of the states that are most dependent on mining production and six that depend on petroleum are classified by the World Bank as heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and have among the worst ratings on the Human Development Index (HDI), according to data compiled by the UN Development Programme (EIR, 2003a: 15)."
(Ed: Bonnie Campbell in 'Mining in Africa: Regulation and development,' p. 190 IDRC)
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